Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis on gingival health, dental plaque, and periodontopathogens in adolescents: a randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial

Benef Microbes. 2018 Jun 15;9(4):593-602. doi: 10.3920/BM2017.0139. Epub 2018 Apr 10.


To determine the effect of a probiotic combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 on the gingival health, dental plaque accumulation, and the oral carriage of four putative periodontal pathogens in healthy adolescents. 108 schoolboys, aged 13-15 years, participated in this study. They were divided into two groups: probiotics (n=54) and placebo (n=54). Both groups received two probiotic-laced or placebo lozenges twice a day during a four-week period. Plaque Index (PI) and Gingival Index (GI) were recorded at baseline and after four weeks. Salivary and plaque carriage of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum were also monitored likewise. 101 subjects completed the study. A statistically significant reduction in GI was seen in the probiotic group as compared to the placebo group (P=0.012). A reduction in PI was found for both groups, with no difference observed between the groups after intervention (P=0.819). Probiotic lozenges significantly reduced levels of A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum in saliva and plaque (P<0.05) and levels of P. gingivalis in plaque (P<0.05), while no significant changes were found in the control group. A significant reduction (P<0.001) was also noted in the total salivary bacterial counts of the test group. The short-term daily consumption of LGG and BB-12 probiotic lozenges improved the gingival health in adolescents and decreased the microbial counts of A. actinomycetemcomitans, and P. gingivalis. Hence probiotic supplements may serve as a simple adjunct to standard oral care for promoting the oral health in adolescents.

Keywords: oral health; oral microbiota; prevention; probiotics.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Health
  • Bifidobacterium animalis*
  • Dental Plaque / microbiology*
  • Dental Plaque Index
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Genome, Bacterial / genetics
  • Humans
  • Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus*
  • Male
  • Microbiota / drug effects
  • Oral Health
  • Periodontal Diseases / microbiology*
  • Periodontal Diseases / prevention & control
  • Probiotics / administration & dosage
  • Probiotics / pharmacology*
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S / genetics
  • Saliva / microbiology


  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S