Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has high biomedical efficacy; however, awareness, access, uptake, and persistence on therapy remain low among black men who have sex with men (BMSM), who are at highest risk of HIV in the United States. To date, discussions of "PrEP failure" have focused on one typology: rare, documented HIV acquisitions among PrEP users with adequate serum drug levels (ie, biomedical failure). In our cohort of HIV-negative young BMSM in Atlanta, Georgia, we continue to observe a high HIV incidence (6.2% annually at interim analysis) despite access to free PrEP services. Among 14 seroconversions, all were offered PrEP before acquiring HIV. Among these participants, we identified 4 additional typologies of PrEP failure that expand beyond biomedical failure: low PrEP adherence, PrEP discontinuation, PrEP contemplation without initiation, and PrEP refusal. We describe the 5 typologies and suggest interventions to improve PrEP effectiveness among those at highest risk.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02503618.