REDO: RNA Editing Detection in Plant Organelles Based on Variant Calling Results

J Comput Biol. 2018 May;25(5):509-516. doi: 10.1089/cmb.2017.0214. Epub 2018 Apr 11.


RNA editing is a post-transcriptional or cotranscriptional process that changes the sequence of the precursor transcript by substitutions, insertions, or deletions. Almost all of the land plants undergo RNA editing in organelles (plastids and mitochondria). Although several software tools have been developed to identify RNA editing events, there has been a great challenge to distinguish true RNA editing events from genome variation, sequencing errors, and other factors. Here we introduce REDO, a comprehensive application tool for identifying RNA editing events in plant organelles based on variant call format files from RNA-sequencing data. REDO is a suite of Perl scripts that illustrate a bunch of attributes of RNA editing events in figures and tables. REDO can also detect RNA editing events in multiple samples simultaneously and identify the significant differential proportion of RNA editing loci. Comparing with similar tools, such as REDItools, REDO runs faster with higher accuracy, and more specificity at the cost of slightly lower sensitivity. Moreover, REDO annotates each RNA editing site in RNAs, whereas REDItools reports only possible RNA editing sites in genome, which need additional steps to obtain RNA editing profiles for RNAs. Overall, REDO can identify potential RNA editing sites easily and provide several functions such as detailed annotations, statistics, figures, and significantly differential proportion of RNA editing sites among different samples.

Keywords: RNA editing; RNA sequencing; annotation; plant organelles; variants..

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Cocos / genetics
  • Computational Biology / methods
  • Genetic Variation*
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing / methods
  • Organelles / genetics*
  • Plant Proteins / genetics*
  • RNA Editing*
  • RNA, Plant / genetics*
  • Software*


  • Plant Proteins
  • RNA, Plant