Objective: To identify the changes caused by dyslipidemia and obesity in pregnancy suggesting causes for premature birth, and the prognosis for the newborn.
Method: Systematic review based on the Medline, Lilacs, Embase and Cochrane library databases between 1996 and 2016. The search for studies included the following keywords: "dyslipidemia, pregnancy, obesity, preterm birth." A protocol was programmed and a protocol for inclusion/exclusion of studies was implemented.
Results: Of the 5,789 articles initially selected between March 1996 and July 2016, only 32 were in accordance with the established criteria. Of these, 28.12% discussed risk factors of prematurity; 37.50%, metabolic alterations and gestational dyslipidemia; 21.87%, dyslipidemic complications in preterm birth; and 12,50%, lipid metabolism, glycemic and placental transfer.
Conclusion: There is a reduced adaptation of obese pregnant women to the metabolic changes of gestation. This favors dyslipidemic intercurrences in the mother, which, directly or indirectly, suggests the occurrence of premature births and high lipid transfer to the fetus. Therefore, preterm newborns, whose mothers were dyslipidemic during pregnancy, have greater risk of epicardial fat, both in early (first year of life) and in later (adult) phases of life.