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. 2018 Apr 10;11(4):585.
doi: 10.3390/ma11040585.

Waterborne Superhydrophobic and Superoleophobic Coatings for the Protection of Marble and Sandstone

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Free PMC article

Waterborne Superhydrophobic and Superoleophobic Coatings for the Protection of Marble and Sandstone

Dimitra Aslanidou et al. Materials (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Silica nanoparticles were dispersed in an aqueous emulsion of alkoxy silanes and organic fluoropolymer. The dispersion was sprayed onto white marble and sandstone. The deposited composite coatings exhibited (i) superhydrophobicity and superoleophobicity, as evidenced by the high (>150°) static contact angles of water and oil drops as well as (ii) water and oil repellency according to the low (<7°) corresponding tilt contact angles. Apart from marble and sandstone, the coatings with extreme wetting properties were deposited onto concrete, silk, and paper, thus demonstrating the versatility of the method. The siloxane/fluoropolymer product was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDX). Moreover, SEM and FT-IR were used to reveal the surface structures of the composite coatings and their transition from superhydrophobicity to superhydrophilicity which occurred after severe thermal treatment. The composite coatings slightly reduced the breathability of marble and sandstone and had practically no optical effect on the colour of the two stones. Moreover, the coatings offered good protection against water penetration by capillarity.

Keywords: coating; cultural heritage; marble; sandstone; superhydrophobic; superoleophobic.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
(a) FT-IR spectra of bare, uncoated marble (bottom) and marble coated by Silres (top). The peaks marked with an asterisk (*) are a result of the marble substrate. (b) Raman spectrum of Silres on marble.
Figure 2
Figure 2
SEM images of (a) marble and (b) sandstone coated by Silres + nanoparticles films. Photographs of water and oil drops are included.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Water and oil drops on various materials which were coated by Silres + nanoparticles.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Demonstration of the easy/self-cleaning property of the Silres + nanoparticles coating on sandstone. Large drops of soiled water on the surface of coated sandstone (a,b) could be easily removed (b) and cleaned with fresh water (c,d).
Figure 5
Figure 5
FT-IR spectra of (a) bare, uncoated sandstone, (b) fresh Silres + nanoparticles coating on sandstone and (c) Silres + nanoparticles coating on sandstone after extensive thermal treatment. Photographs which demonstrate the interaction of water drops with the three surfaces are included. In particular, the (a) hydrophilic, (b) superhydrophobic and (c) superhydrophilic properties of the corresponding surfaces are revealed.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Amounts of absorbed water per unit area (Qi) as a function of treatment time ti, for (a) marble and (b) sandstone specimens which were uncoated and coated by Silres and Silres + nanoparticles.

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