Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 80 (5), 749-754

Molecular Diversity of the Faecal Microbiota of Toy Poodles in Japan


Molecular Diversity of the Faecal Microbiota of Toy Poodles in Japan

Tsutomu Omatsu et al. J Vet Med Sci.


The intestinal microbiota was revealed with the recent advances in molecular techniques, such as high-throughput sequencing analysis. As a result, the microbial changes are thought to influence the health of humans and animals and such changes are affected by several factors including diet, genetics, age, sex, and diseases. Similar studies are being conducted in dogs, and the knowledge of intestinal microbiota in dogs is expanding. Nonetheless, basic information on intestinal microbiota in dogs is less than that of humans. Our aim was to study toy poodles (n=21), a popular companion dog, in terms of basic characteristics of the faecal microbiota by 16S rRNA gene barcoding analysis. In the faecal microbiota, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the dominant phyla (over 93.4% of faecal microbiota) regardless of the attributes of the dogs. In family level, Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Lachnospiraceae were most prevalent. In case of a dog with protein-losing enteropathy, the diversity of faecal microbiota was different between before and after treatment. This study provides basic information for studying on faecal microbiota in toy poodles.

Keywords: 16S rRNA gene barcoding; Toy Poodle; faecal microbiota.


Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.
Population representation of the faecal microbiome at the phylum level in each sample. The OTUs obtained using QIIME was classified into the level of the phylum, 9 phyla, for each faecal swab sample from 20 dogs without diarrhoea and 1 dog with PLE.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.
Rarefaction analysis of the 16S rRNA gene obtained from faecal samples of dogs without diarrhoea. Lines represent the average of each group, and error bars represent the standard deviations. The analysis was classified by age (A); red line: 0–3 years old, blue line: 4–8 years old, and yellow line: 9–12 years old, and by sex (B); red line: females, and blue line: males.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.
PCoA plots of the 16S rRNA gene from faecal samples. PCoA was calculated using weighted UniFrac distance. The analysis was classified by age (A) and sex (B). There was no significant difference among age groups (ANOSIM, P=0.18, R=0.069) and between sex groups (ANOSIM, P=0.45, R=–0.013).

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 1 PubMed Central articles


    1. Cong X., Xu W., Janton S., Henderson W. A., Matson A., McGrath J. M., Maas K., Graf J. 2016. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender. PLOS ONE 11: e0152751. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152751 - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Deng P., Swanson K. S. 2015. Gut microbiota of humans, dogs and cats: current knowledge and future opportunities and challenges. Br. J. Nutr. 113 Suppl: S6–S17. doi: 10.1017/S0007114514002943 - DOI - PubMed
    1. Deusch O., O’Flynn C., Colyer A., Swanson K. S., Allaway D., Morris P. 2015. A Longitudinal Study of the Feline Faecal Microbiome Identifies Changes into Early Adulthood Irrespective of Sexual Development. PLOS ONE 10: e0144881. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144881 - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Dillon R. J., Webster G., Weightman A. J., Keith Charnley A. 2010. Diversity of gut microbiota increases with aging and starvation in the desert locust. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 97: 69–77. doi: 10.1007/s10482-009-9389-5 - DOI - PubMed
    1. Gnanandarajah J. S., Johnson T. J., Kim H. B., Abrahante J. E., Lulich J. P., Murtaugh M. P. 2012. Comparative faecal microbiota of dogs with and without calcium oxalate stones. J. Appl. Microbiol. 113: 745–756. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2012.05390.x - DOI - PubMed