Background: Identifying preoperative risk factors that may portend poorer operative outcomes remains a topic of current interest. In hip and knee arthroplasty patients, the presence of patient-reported allergies (PRAs) has been associated with worse pain and function after joint replacement. However, these results have not been replicated across studies, including in shoulder arthroplasty cases. The impact of PRAs on foot and ankle outcomes has yet to be studied. The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether PRAs influence patient-reported outcome in foot and ankle surgery.
Methods: To determine if PRAs are linked to poorer operative outcomes, we retrospectively identified 159 patients who underwent elective foot and ankle surgery. PRA data were obtained via chart review, and patient-reported outcomes were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively via multiple domains, including Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) physical function, pain interference, and depression measures. Consistent with prior methodology, we compared outcome measures (preoperative, postoperative, and the change in outcome scores) between patients without self-reported allergies to patients with at least 1 PRA.
Results: There were 159 patients studied; 79 patients had no allergies listed, and 80 patients had at least 1 PRA. Of the 80 patients with at least 1 PRA, there were a total of 170 possible allergies. There were no differences in preoperative, postoperative, or the change in outcome scores for all PROMIS measures (physical function, pain interference, and depression; P > .05) between patients with at least 1 PRA and those patients without any listed PRAs.
Conclusions: We were unable to prove our hypothesis that PRAs were linked to poorer patient-reported outcomes following foot and ankle surgery. Closer review of the published reports linking PRAs to worse total joint arthroplasty outcomes revealed data that, while statistically significant, are likely not clinically relevant. Our negative findings, then, may in fact parallel prior studies on hip, knee, and shoulder arthroplasty patients. The presence of PRAs does not appear to be a risk factor for suboptimal outcomes in foot and ankle surgery.
Level of evidence: Level III, comparative series.
Keywords: PROMIS; patient-reported allergies; patient-reported outcomes.