Labyrinthitis Ossificans in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

Comp Med. 2018 Apr 12;68(3):239-242. doi: 10.30802/AALAS-CM-17-000070. Online ahead of print.


Labyrinthitis is inflammation of the membranous and bony labyrinth of the inner ear. Typical portals of entry includehematogenous spread from the cochlear vasculature, passage of otitis media pathogens through the round window, and mostcommonly, meningogenic spread from the subarachnoid space. The sequela of chronic inner ear inflammation is labyrinthitisossificans, in which inner ear structures are replaced by fibrous and osseous tissues. Labyrinthitis in humans has been reportedconcurrently with infection due to various viruses (for example, varicella-zoster, measles, mumps) and bacteria (for example,Treponema pallidum, Streptococcus pneumoniae) and may be associated with vertebrobasilar ischemia and meningitis. Profoundsensorineural hearing loss is a common, serious complication of this disease. Here, we report a case of labyrinthitisossificans in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) with a potential infectious etiology. Historically, this animal hadan indwelling femoral intravenous catheter for more than 4 y. He presented with a right-sided head tilt and incoordinationof 2 mo duration. The macaque was treated with NSAID and antibiotics, which corrected the incoordination but not the headtilt. MRI revealed right-sided labyrinthitis, and euthanasia was elected due to clinical signs that were refractory to treatment.Gross pathology was unremarkable, but histopathology revealed chronic labyrinthitis ossificans with local fibroplasia andvestibuloauditory neuritis. We describe here the clinical features, imaging, and histologic lesions of labyrinthitis in a macaque.