Doradidae has been a target of phylogenetic studies over the last few years, but chromosomal information about the family is still scarce. Therefore, new cytogenetic data are provided herein and they are correlated with phylogenetic proposals to contribute to the knowledge of chromosomal evolution within doradids. Cytogenetic studies were performed on Trachydoras paraguayensis, Anadoras sp. "araguaia," Ossancora eigenmanni, Platydoras armatulus, and Rhinodoras dorbignyi. O. eigenmanni, P. armatulus, and R. dorbignyi had 2n = 58 chromosomes as found for most doradids, but T. paraguayensis and Anadoras sp. "araguaia" had 2n = 56 chromosomes, probably caused by a chromosomal reduction. There is a great maintenance of 2n = 58 verified in doradids, but karyotype formulas are diverse. Moreover, other markers (i.e., nucleolar organizer regions, heterochromatin distribution, and 5S and 18S rDNA) showed a great diversity among the analyzed species. Contrasting the variability in the chromosomal markers with the maintenance of diploid number, it is likely that inversions and translocations played an important role in chromosome differentiation in Doradidae. Herein, we created an integrative discussion linking cytogenetic data to phylogenetic proposals, based on morphological and genetic features, enabling us to identify possible cytogenetic traits, as well as probable chromosomal plesiomorphy and apomorphy of Doradidae species.
Keywords: 18S rDNA-FISH; 5S rDNA-FISH; apomorphy; cytotaxonomy; plesiomorphy.