Burden of high blood pressure as a contributing factor to stroke in the Japanese community-based diabetic population

Hypertens Res. 2018 Jul;41(7):531-538. doi: 10.1038/s41440-018-0042-4. Epub 2018 Apr 13.


Diabetes mellitus is characterized by alterations in blood glucose (BG) metabolism, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) has been widely used as a marker of the BG concentration. Diabetes often coexists with high blood pressure (BP). High BP and hyperglycemia are well-known risk factors of stroke. We examined the extent to which the increased risk of stroke in diabetic individuals is attributable to BP and BG using prospectively collected data from the Japanese general population. During an average 8.3 ± 2.2 years of follow-up, out 1606 diabetic individuals aged ≥40 years who were free of cardiovascular disease, 119 participants (7.4%) developed stroke. In multivariable analysis, a significant difference in the risk of incident stroke was noted among the BP categories, including normotension (BP1), prehypertension (BP2), and hypertension (BP3; P for trend = 0.001). By contrast, no difference was noted among the BG categories, including HbA1c levels <7.0% (HB1), 7.0-7.9% (HB2), and ≥8.0% (HB3; P for trend = 0.430). Compared with the category that included both BP1 and HB1, the population-attributable fraction (PAF) for stroke incidence was 52.0% from the BP2 and BP3 categories and 24.1% from the HB2 and HB3 categories, and the increased incidence from the HB2 and HB3 categories was mostly caused from coexistent BP2 and BP3 categories. In conclusion, in the Japanese community-based diabetic population, concomitant BP elevation largely contributes to the increased incidence of stroke and links BG elevation, as indicated by HbA1c, to the increased risk of stroke.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose
  • Blood Pressure / physiology*
  • Blood Pressure Determination
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / complications*
  • Hypertension / physiopathology
  • Incidence
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Stroke / epidemiology*
  • Stroke / etiology*
  • Stroke / physiopathology


  • Blood Glucose