Purpose: To assess visual impairment in a large sample of infants with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) and to compare with a control group using the same assessment protocol.
Methods: The study group was composed of infants with confirmed diagnosis of CZS. Controls were healthy infants matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. All infants underwent comprehensive ophthalmologic evaluation including visual acuity, visual function assessment, and visual developmental milestones.
Results: The CZS group included 119 infants; the control group, 85 infants. At examination, the mean age of the CZS group was 8.5 ± 1.2 months (range, 6-13 months); of the controls, 8.4 ± 1.8 months (range, 5-12 months; P = 0.598). Binocular Teller Acuity Card (TAC) testing was abnormal in 107 CZS infants and in 4 controls (89.9% versus 5% [P < 0.001]). In the study group, abnormal monocular TAC results were more frequent in eyes with funduscopic alterations (P = 0.008); however, 104 of 123 structurally normal eyes (84.6%) also presented abnormal TAC results. Binocular contrast sensitivity was reduced in 87 of 107 CZS infants and in 8 of 80 controls (81.3% versus 10% [P < 0.001]). The visual development milestones were less achieved by infants with CZS compared to controls (P < 0.001).
Conclusions: Infants with CZS present with severe visual impairment. A protocol for assessment of the ocular findings, visual acuity, and visual developmental milestones tested against age-matched controls is suggested.
Copyright © 2018 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.