Cross-cultural invariance of NPI-13: Entitlement as culturally specific, leadership and grandiosity as culturally universal

Int J Psychol. 2019 Aug;54(4):439-447. doi: 10.1002/ijop.12487. Epub 2018 Apr 15.


The current study explores the problem with the lack of measurement invariance for the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) by addressing two issues: conceptual heterogeneity of narcissism and methodological issues related to the binary character of data. We examine the measurement invariance of the 13-item version of the NPI in three populations in Japan, Poland and the UK. Analyses revealed that leadership/authority and grandiose exhibitionism dimensions of the NPI were cross-culturally invariant, while entitlement/exploitativeness was culturally specific. Therefore, we proposed NPI-9 as indicating scalar invariance, and we examined the pattern of correlations between NPI-9 and other variables across three countries. The results suggest that NPI-9 is valid brief scale measuring general levels of narcissism in cross-cultural studies, while the NPI-13 remains suitable for research within specific countries.

Keywords: Cross-cultural comparisons; Measurement invariance; NPI; Narcissism; Validity.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Leadership
  • Male
  • Personality Disorders / psychology*
  • Personality Inventory
  • Psychometrics / methods*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Young Adult