Non-Face-to-Face Chronic Care Management: A Qualitative Study Assessing the Implementation of a New CMS Reimbursement Strategy

Popul Health Manag. 2018 Dec;21(6):454-461. doi: 10.1089/pop.2017.0196. Epub 2018 Apr 16.


Diabetes and its comorbidities are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States and disproportionately in Louisiana. Chronic care management (CCM) efforts, such as care coordination models, are important initiatives in mitigating the impact of diabetes, such as poorer health outcomes and increased costs. This study examined one such effort, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' non-face-to-face CCM reimbursement program, for patients with diabetes and at least 1 other chronic condition in Louisiana. This qualitative study included interviews with patients in this program and health care providers and system leaders implementing the program. Results include lessons learned from health system leadership relating to CCM design and implementation, challenges experienced, overlapping initiatives, perceived benefits, performance, billing, and health information technology. Another key finding is that co-pays seem to be a barrier to patient interest in participation in non-face-to-face CCM, especially given that the value of the program is not completely clear to patients. A common strategy to address this co-pay barrier is to target dual eligibles, as Medicaid will cover the co-pay. However, widespread use of such strategies may indirectly exclude individuals who need and may also benefit from non-face-to-face CCM.

Keywords: care coordination; chronic care management; diabetes; patient-centered.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S.
  • Chronic Disease / economics*
  • Chronic Disease / therapy*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus / therapy
  • Humans
  • Insurance, Health, Reimbursement / economics*
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Louisiana
  • Medicaid / economics*
  • Patient-Centered Care / economics
  • United States