Emergence of Human G2P[4] Rotaviruses in the Post-vaccination Era in South Korea: Footprints of Multiple Interspecies Re-assortment Events

Sci Rep. 2018 Apr 16;8(1):6011. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-24511-y.


After the introduction of two global rotavirus vaccines, RotaTeq in 2007 and Rotarix in 2008 in South Korea, G1[P8] rotavirus was the major rotavirus genotype in the country until 2012. However, in this study, an emergence of G2P[4] as the dominant genotype during the 2013 to 2015 season has been reported. Genetic analysis revealed that these viruses had typical DS-1-like genotype constellation and showed evidence of re-assortment in one or more genome segments, including the incorporation of NSP4 genes from strains B-47/2008 from a cow and R4/Haryana/2007 from a buffalo in India, and the VP1 and VP3 genes from strain GO34/1999 from a goat in Bangladesh. Compared to the G2 RotaTeq vaccine strain, 17-24 amino acid changes, specifically A87T, D96N, S213D, and S242N substitutions in G2 epitopes, were observed. These results suggest that multiple interspecies re-assortment events might have contributed to the emergence of G2P[4] rotaviruses in the post-vaccination era in South Korea.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Capsid Proteins / genetics
  • Cattle
  • Genome, Viral*
  • Genotype
  • Glycoproteins / genetics
  • Humans
  • Phylogeny*
  • Republic of Korea / epidemiology
  • Rotavirus / genetics*
  • Rotavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Rotavirus Infections / prevention & control
  • Rotavirus Infections / virology*
  • Rotavirus Vaccines / therapeutic use
  • Toxins, Biological / genetics
  • Viral Nonstructural Proteins / genetics


  • Capsid Proteins
  • Glycoproteins
  • NS28 protein, rotavirus
  • Rotavirus Vaccines
  • Toxins, Biological
  • Viral Nonstructural Proteins