Purpose of review: Lack of vascularity in the human knee meniscus often leads to surgical removal (total or partial meniscectomy) in the case of severe meniscal damage. However, complete recovery is in question after such removal as the meniscus plays an important role in knee stability. Thus, meniscus tissue regeneration strategies are of intense research interest in recent years.
Recent findings: The structural complexity and inhomogeneity of the meniscus have been addressed with processing technologies for precisely controlled three dimensional (3D) complex porous scaffold architectures, the use of biomolecules and nanomaterials. The regeneration and replacement of the total meniscus have been studied by the orthopedic and scientific communities via successful pre-clinical trials towards mimicking the biomechanical properties of the human knee meniscus. Researchers have attempted different regeneration strategies which contribute to in vitro regeneration and are capable of repairing meniscal tears to some extent. This review discusses the present state of the art of these meniscus tissue engineering aspects.
Keywords: Biomolecules; Knee meniscus; Regeneration; Scaffold-free; Scaffolds; Tissue engineering.