Background: Total shoulder arthroplasty remains an effective procedure for shoulder pain relief. Despite the negative effect of abnormal glenoid morphology and specifically retroverted and posteriorly subluxated glenoids, there is no consensus for management of B2 glenoids in total shoulder arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes and complication rates for B2 glenoid techniques so as to provide a baseline understanding of the current state of treatment of this pathology.
Methods: A systematic review evaluating outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty with biconcave glenoids using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) methodology included searches up to December 31, 2015, of PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, Cochrane Reviews, and Google Scholar. Nine articles met inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Results: In this study, 239 total shoulder arthroplasties with B2 glenoids with a mean follow-up of 55.5 months (range, 24 to 91 months) were included. The mean patient age was 63.3 years (range, 55.8 to 68.7 years). Asymmetric reaming was performed in 127 glenoids, posterior bone-grafting was included in 53 glenoids, and 34 received an augmented glenoid component to correct glenoid retroversion and bone loss. Overall, the mean Constant and Neer scores improved from preoperative measures. Fifty-eight percent of patients had no loosening, and 42% had some loosening, although not all of these patients were symptomatic. Despite variation in outcome measures hindering treatment approach comparison, the posteriorly augmented glenoid was generally reported to provide better outcomes with few complications. Although posterior glenoid bone-grafting results in acceptable outcomes, it also represents the highest rate of complications. The revision rate was 15.6% for asymmetric reaming, 9.5% for posterior glenoid bone-grafting, and 0% for posteriorly augmented glenoids.
Conclusions: Surgical treatment of the B2 glenoid remains a challenge to the shoulder surgeon, with worse outcomes and higher complication rates. Longer follow-up, consistent outcome measures, and result stratification based on glenoid type may allow for direct comparison in the future.
Level of evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.