Ischemic Stroke in an HIV Positive Patient: An Initial Presentation of Neurosyphilis

Case Rep Neurol Med. 2018 Feb 13;2018:2410154. doi: 10.1155/2018/2410154. eCollection 2018.


Ischemic stroke occurring in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) needs to be approached with a vast differential diagnosis in mind. We report a case of middle-aged male patient with immune reconstituted HIV on therapy without known cardiovascular risk factors who had a right middle cerebral artery territory infarct. After a thorough evaluation, he received a final diagnosis of neurosyphilis-associated vasculitis leading to stroke. He recovered without any neurological deficits following treatment with intravenous benzylpenicillin. Neurosyphilis is an easily diagnosed and treatable cause of a stroke that can be an initial presentation of neurosyphilis but requires a high index of suspicion.

Publication types

  • Case Reports