Purpose of review: To discuss the diagnostic approach, treatment options, and future considerations in the management of plasmacytomas, either solitary or in the context of overt multiple myeloma (MM).
Recent findings: Advanced imaging techniques such as whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computerized tomography are essential for the diagnostic workup of solitary plasmacytomas (SP) to rule out the presence of other disease foci. The role of flow cytometry and clonal plasma cell detection is currently under study together with other prognostic factors for the identification of patients with SP at high risk of progression to overt MM. Solitary plasmacytomas are treated effectively with local radiotherapy whereas systemic therapy is required at relapse. Clonal plasma cells that accumulate at extramedullary sites have distinct biological characteristics. Patients with MM and soft tissue involvement have poor outcomes and should be treated as ultra-high risk. A revised definition of SP that distinguishes between true solitary clonal PC accumulations and SP with minimal bone marrow involvement should be considered to guide an appropriate therapeutic and follow-up approach. Future studies should be conducted to determine optimum treatment approaches for patients with MM and paraskeletal or extramedullary disease.
Keywords: Bone disease; Extramedullary; Plasma cells; Solitary lesion; Tumor.