The human clone ST22 SCCmec IV methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from swine herds and wild primates in Nepal: is man the common source?

FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2018 May 1;94(5):fiy052. doi: 10.1093/femsec/fiy052.


Swine nasal samples [n = 282] were collected from 12 randomly selected farms around Kathmandu, Nepal, from healthy animals. In addition, wild monkey (Macaca mulatta) saliva samples [n = 59] were collected near temples areas in Kathmandu using a non-invasive sampling technique. All samples were processed for MRSA using standardized selective media and conventional biochemical tests. MRSA verification was done and isolates characterized by SCCmec, multilocus sequence typing, whole genome sequencing [WGS] and antibiotic susceptibilities. Six (2.1%) swine MRSA were isolated from five of the different swine herds tested, five were ST22 type IV and one ST88 type V. Four (6.8%) macaques MRSA were isolated, with three ST22 SCCmec type IV and one ST239 type III. WGS sequencing showed that the eight ciprofloxacin resistant ST22 isolates carried gyrA mutation [S84L]. Six isolates carried the erm(C) genes, five isolates carried aacC-aphD genes and four isolates carried blaZ genes. The swine linezolid resistant ST22 did not carry any known acquired linezolid resistance genes but had a mutation in ribosomal protein L22 [A29V] and an insertion in L4 [68KG69], both previously associated with linezolid resistance. Multiple virulence factors were also identified. This is the first time MRSA ST22 SCCmec IV has been isolated from livestock or primates.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Wild / microbiology
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Disease Reservoirs / microbiology
  • Farms
  • Humans
  • Livestock / microbiology
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus / classification
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus / genetics
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus / isolation & purification*
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Multilocus Sequence Typing
  • Nepal
  • Primates / microbiology*
  • Staphylococcal Infections / microbiology*
  • Swine / microbiology*
  • Virulence Factors / genetics


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Virulence Factors