Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2018 Feb 19;2018:7408129.
doi: 10.1155/2018/7408129. eCollection 2018.

Anxiety and Depression in Patients With Permanent Atrial Fibrillation: Prevalence and Associated Factors

Free PMC article

Anxiety and Depression in Patients With Permanent Atrial Fibrillation: Prevalence and Associated Factors

Maria Polikandrioti et al. Cardiol Res Pract. .
Free PMC article


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an important public health problem that is increasing at an alarming rate, worldwide. The most common type is permanent AF followed by the paroxysmal and persistent AF. Purpose. This study was aimed at exploring anxiety and depression and the associated factors in patients with permanent AF. Materials and Methods. The sample of the study included 170 AF patients. Data collection was performed by the method of interview using the "Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale" (HADS) to assess anxiety and depression and a questionnaire including patients' characteristics. Results. 70% of the participants were men, and 32.4% were above 70 years old. Furthermore, 34.9% of the patients had high levels of anxiety, and 20.2% had high levels of depression. Anxiety levels were statistically significantly associated with gender (p=0.022), age (p=0.022), educational level (p=0.025), years having the disease (p=0.005), and relations with nursing staff (p=0.040). Depression levels were statistically significantly associated with age (p=0.037), degree of information of the state of health (p < 0.001), years having the disease (p < 0.001), and relations with medical staff (p=0.041). Conclusions. Patients' characteristics are associated with anxiety and depression and need to be evaluated when treating this frequently encountered arrhythmia.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 4 articles


    1. Galli F., Borghi L., Carugo S., et al. Atrial fibrillation and psychological factors: a systematic review. PeerJ. 2017;5:p. e3537. doi: 10.7717/peerj.3537. - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Andrikopoulos G., Pastromas S., Mantas I., et al. Management of atrial fibrillation in Greece: the MANAGE-AF study. Hellenic Journal of Cardiology. 2014;55(4):281–287. - PubMed
    1. Zoni-Berisso M., Lercari F., Carazza T., Domenicucci S. Epidemiology of atrial fibrillation: European perspective. Clinical Epidemiology. 2014;6:213–220. doi: 10.2147/clep.s47385. - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Wyndham C. R. C. Atrial fibrillation: the most common arrhythmia. Texas Heart Institute Journal. 2000;27(3):257–267. - PMC - PubMed
    1. Bostrom J. A., Saczynski J. S., Hajduk A., et al. Burden of psychosocial and cognitive impairment in patients with atrial fibrillation. Critical Pathways in Cardiology. 2017;16(2):71–75. doi: 10.1097/hpc.0000000000000101. - DOI - PMC - PubMed