Aims/hypothesis: Low physical activity levels and sedentary behaviour are associated with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effects of a short-term reduction in physical activity with increased sedentary behaviour on metabolic profiles and body composition, comparing the effects in individuals with first-degree relatives with type 2 diabetes (FDR+ve) vs those without (FDR-ve).
Methods: Forty-five habitually active participants (16 FDR+ve [10 female, 6 male] and 29 FDR-ve [18 female, 11 male]; age 36 ± 14 years) were assessed at baseline, after 14 days of step reduction and 14 days after resuming normal activity. We determined physical activity (using a SenseWear armband), cardiorespiratory fitness ([Formula: see text]), body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry/magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and multi-organ insulin sensitivity (OGTT) at each time point. Statistical analysis was performed using a two-factor between-groups ANCOVA, with data presented as mean ± SD or (95% CI).
Results: There were no significant between-group differences in physical activity either at baseline or following step reduction. During the step-reduction phase, average daily step count decreased by 10,285 steps (95% CI 9389, 11,182; p < 0.001), a reduction of 81 ± 8%, increasing sedentary time by 223 min/day (151, 295; p < 0.001). Pooling data from both groups, following step reduction there was a significant decrease in whole-body insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) (p < 0.001), muscle insulin sensitivity index (p < 0.001), cardiorespiratory fitness (p = 0.002) and lower limb lean mass (p = 0.004). Further, there was a significant increase in total body fat (p < 0.001), liver fat (p = 0.001) and LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.013), with a borderline significant increase in NEFA AUC during the OGTT (p = 0.050). Four significant between-group differences were apparent: following step reduction, FDR+ve participants accumulated 1.5% more android fat (0.4, 2.6; p = 0.008) and increased triacylglycerol by 0.3 mmol/l (0.1, 0.6; p = 0.044). After resuming normal activity, FDR+ve participants engaged in lower amounts of vigorous activity (p = 0.006) and had lower muscle insulin sensitivity (p = 0.023). All other changes were reversed with no significant between-group differences.
Conclusions/interpretation: A short-term reduction in physical activity with increased sedentary behaviour leads to a reversible reduction in multi-organ insulin sensitivity and cardiorespiratory fitness, with concomitant increases in central and liver fat and dyslipidaemia. The effects are broadly similar in FDR+ve and FDR-ve individuals. Public health recommendations promoting physical activity should incorporate advice to avoid periods of sedentary behaviour.
Keywords: Body composition; Cardiorespiratory fitness; Glucose tolerance; Insulin resistance; Liver fat; Physical activity; Sedentary behaviour; Skeletal muscle; Type 2 diabetes.