Purpose: The development of prostate cancer may be impacted by environmental factors, including diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and risk of prostate cancer in a large prospective cohort study among Japanese men.
Methods: A total of 43,469 men who participated in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study were followed from 1995 to 1998 to the end of 2012, during which 1,156 cases of prostate cancer were newly identified. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire in the 5-year follow-up survey.
Results: Three major dietary patterns were derived using exploratory factors analysis: prudent, westernized, and traditional dietary patterns. The westernized dietary pattern was associated with a higher risk of total prostate cancer (HR: 1.22; 95% CI 1.00-1.49; p trend = 0.021), localized cancer (HR: 1.24; 95% CI 0.97-1.57; p trend = 0.045), and advanced cancer (HR: 1.23; 95% CI 0.82-1.84; p trend = 0.233). The prudent dietary pattern was associated with a lower risk of total and localized prostate cancer, with respective multivariable HRs for the highest and lowest quintiles of 0.71 (95% CI 0.50-1.02; p trend = 0.037) and 0.63 (95% CI 0.38-1.03; p trend = 0.048) among subjects detected by subjective symptoms. No association was found between the traditional dietary pattern and prostate cancer risk among our subjects.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that a western-style diet may lead to a higher risk of prostate cancer in the total population, whereas the prudent diet contributes to a lower risk among subjects detected by subjective symptoms.
Keywords: Cohort study; Dietary pattern; Epidemiology; Factor analysis; Prostate cancer.