Ghee Butter as a Therapeutic Delivery System

J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2017 Feb;17(2):977-82. doi: 10.1166/jnn.2017.12623.


Solid lipid nanoparticles carrying a chemotherapeutic payload (i.e., temozolomide, TMZ) were synthesized using ghee, a clarified butter commonly used in traditional medicine and food products. Ghee solid lipid nanoparticles (GSLN) were characterized through dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, and UV-visible spectrometry. Formulations were generated with varying ratios of surfactant to lipid, resulting in a maximum TMZ entrapment efficiency of ˜70%. Optimal formulations were found to have an average size and polydispersity of ˜220 nm and 0.340, respectively. Release kinetics revealed TMZ-loaded GSLN (TMZ@GSLN) retained 10% of its pay-load at 2 h with ˜53% released in 5 h. Metabolic activity on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) revealed GSLN treatment resulted in an increase in viability following 3 d while treatment of glioblastoma LN-229 cells with TMZ@GSLN resulted in a significant decrease. Evaluation of diffusion of TMZ across a reconstructed HUVEC monolayer demonstrated TMZ@GSLN resulted in a significantly higher diffusion of drug when compared to free TMZ. This data suggests GSLN pose a promising delivery vehicle for TMZ-based therapeutics. Collectively, this data demonstrates GSLN exhibit favorable drug carrier properties with anti-proliferative properties in glioblastoma cancer cells.

Keywords: Ghee; Nanoparticles; Drug Delivery.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives
  • Dacarbazine / chemistry
  • Dacarbazine / pharmacokinetics
  • Dacarbazine / pharmacology
  • Drug Carriers* / chemistry
  • Drug Carriers* / pharmacokinetics
  • Ghee*
  • Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
  • Humans
  • Nanoparticles / chemistry*
  • Temozolomide


  • Drug Carriers
  • Ghee
  • Dacarbazine
  • Temozolomide