Thyroid hormone (TH) receptors are present in the myocardium and vascular tissue, and minor alterations in TH concentration can affect cardiovascular (CV) physiology. The potential mechanisms that link CV disease with thyroid dysfunction are endothelial dysfunction, changes in blood pressure, myocardial systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and dyslipidemia. In addition, cardiac disease itself may lead to alterations in TH concentrations (notably, low triiodothyronine syndrome) that are associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Experimental data and small clinical trials have suggested a beneficial role of TH in ameliorating CV disease. The aim of this review is to provide clinicians dealing with CV conditions with an overview of the current knowledge of TH perturbations in CV disease.
Keywords: acute myocardial infarction; amiodarone; heart failure; thyroxine; triiodothyronine.
Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.