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. 2018 Feb 5;(734):43-103.
doi: 10.3897/zookeys.734.21989. eCollection 2018.

The Tiger Beetles (Coleoptera, Cicindelidae) of the Southern Levant and Adjacent Territories: From Cybertaxonomy to Conservation Biology

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The Tiger Beetles (Coleoptera, Cicindelidae) of the Southern Levant and Adjacent Territories: From Cybertaxonomy to Conservation Biology

Thorsten Assmann et al. Zookeys. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The tiger beetles of the southern Levant (Egypt: Sinai, Israel, Jordan) and adjacent regions of the neighboring countries Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Egypt are reviewed in terms of species taxonomy, ecological and distributional traits and conservation biology. An illustrated dichotomous identification key from the species of this region is provided. Based on the classical identification key, we developed a digital identification application for smartphones and tablets. The species status of Calomera aulicoides (J.R. Sahlberg, 1913) is (re-) established (stat. rest.) as this taxon can be found sympatrically and parapatrically together with Calomera littoralis winkleri (Mandl, 1934). Morphological character states are discussed to identify Cicindela javetii Chaudoir, 1861 and C. herbacea Klug, 1832. Calomera aphrodisia (Baudi di Selve, 1864) is recorded for the first time from Israel. The presence of Calomera aulica (Dejean, 1831) and Grammognatha euphratica (Dejean, 1822) is confirmed by new records. At least five taxa are threatened or extinct in Israel. For one of these species, Israel has a national responsibility for the conservation as the main part of the distribution range is within this country.

Availability: The application TIGER BEETLE ID for Android devices can be freely downloaded at https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.734.21989.suppl1. See also disclaimer of warranties.

Keywords: Android; Geadephaga; Middle East; application for smartphones and tablets; identification key; life history traits; mobile devices; sibling species; species status; species traits.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Study area. The line marks the approximate edge of the study area and parts of adjacent lands. Mediterranean islands are excluded.
Figures 2, 3.
Figures 2, 3.
Head of a tiger beetle (left) and of a ground beetle (right) (dorsal view = upper side) and structures often used for identification. The arrows mark the insertion of antenna.
Figure 4.
Figure 4.
Habitus of a tiger beetle (dorsal view = upper side) and structures often used for identification.
Figure 5.
Figure 5.
Leg of a tiger beetle and structures often used for identification. The prefixes pro-, meso- and meta- are used to indicate parts of the front, middle and hind legs, respectively. For example, metatibia refers to the tibia of hind leg and profemur to the femur of fore leg.
Figure 6.
Figure 6.
Labrum of tiger beetles: a without a tooth (Myriochila melancholica) b, c, d, e, f with 1 tooth (b Cylindera contorta valdenbergi c Cephalota littorea d Cicindela javetii e Cylindera rectangularis f Cephalota vartianorum) g, i with 3 teeth (g Cicindela asiatica i Myriochila orientalis) h with 3 to 5 teeth (h Cephalota tibialis).
Figures 7–10.
Figures 7–10.
Cicindelidae species: 7 Grammognatha euphratica (female) 8 Cicindela javetii (male) 9 C. javetii (female) 10 C. javetii (male, paratype of thughurica).
Figures 11–12.
Figures 11–12.
Cicindela species: 11 C. herbacea (male) 12 C. asiatica (male).
Figures 13–16.
Figures 13–16.
Calomera species: 13 C. concolor (female) 14 C. fischeri (male) 15 C. alboguttata (male) 16 C. aulica (male).
Figures 17–20.
Figures 17–20.
Calomera species: 17 C. diania (male) 18 C. aphrodisia (male) 19 C. littoralis winkleri (male) 20 C. aulicoides (male).
Figures 25–28.
Figures 25–28.
Cephalota species: 25 C. littorea (male) 26 C. tibialis (male) 27 C. circumdata (male) 28 C. vartianorum (male).
Figures 29–32.
Figures 29–32.
Cylindera (sub-) species: 29 C. contorta s.str. (male) 30 C. rectangularis (female) 31 C. contorta valdenbergi (male) 32 C. contorta valdenbergi (female).
Figures 33–35.
Figures 33–35.
Myriochila species: 33 M. melancholica (female) 34 M. orientalis (female) 35 M. dorsata (female).
Figures 36–38.
Figures 36–38.
Lophyra species: 36 L. flexuosa (female) 37 L. hilariola (male) 38 L. histrio (male).
Figure 39.
Figure 39.
Median lobes of the aedeagus of Cicindela species: a, b C. javetii and c C. herbacea.
Figure 40.
Figure 40.
Median lobes of the aedeagus of species of the Calomera aulica group: a C. aulica b C. diania c C. aphrodisia.
Figure 41.
Figure 41.
Median lobes of the aedeagus of species of Calomera aulicoides (above) and C. littoralis winkleri (below).
Figure 42.
Figure 42.
Copulatory pieces (arrows) of the median lobes of aedeagi of Calomera aulicoides (above) and C. littoralis winkleri (below).
Figure 43.
Figure 43.
Median lobes of the aedeagus of Cephalota species: a C. littorea b C. tibialis c C. circumdata d C. vartianorum.
Figure 44.
Figure 44.
Median lobes of the aedeagus of Cylindera species: a C. contorta s.str. b C. rectangularis.
Figure 45.
Figure 45.
Median lobes of the aedeagus of Lophyridia species: a L. flexuosa b L. hilariola c L. histrio.
Figure 46.
Figure 46.
Median lobes of the aedeagus of Myriochila species: a M. melancholica b M. orientalis.
Figure 47.
Figure 47.
Median lobe of the aedeagus of Hypaetha singularis.
Figure 48.
Figure 48.
Head in lateral view: Calomera alboguttata (above) and Habrodera nilotica (below).
Figure 49.
Figure 49.
Metafemora, lateral view on lower side: C. aulica (left), C. aulicoides (right).
Figure 50.
Figure 50.
Head of Calomera species in dorsal view: C. diania (left), C. aulica (right).
Figure 51.
Figure 51.
Head of Calomera species in dorsal view: C. aphrodisia (left), C. aulicoides (right).
Figure 52.
Figure 52.
Head of Calomera littoralis winkleri: with regular form of left mandible (left) and a small fourth tooth on the inner side of left mandible (arrow, right).
Figure 53.
Figure 53.
Tibial spurs and 1st tarsal segment of Calomera littoralis winkleri (left) and Calomera aulicoides (right).
Figure 54.
Figure 54.
1st antennal segment: with only one erect distal seta (Calomera alboguttata; above) and with one erect distal seta and additional recumbent white setae (Lophyra histrio; below).
Figure 55.
Figure 55.
Forebody of cicindelid species: Hypaetha singularis (above, left), Habrodera nilotica (above, right), and Calomera alboguttata (below).
Figure 56.
Figure 56.
Overview of the main functions of the application TIGER BEETLES ID. This stand-alone application for mobile Android devices (smartphones, tablets) can be freely downloaded at https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.734.21989.suppl1.

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