Metabolism and kinetics of amlodipine in man

Xenobiotica. 1988 Feb;18(2):245-54. doi: 10.3109/00498258809041660.


1. The disposition of amlodipine, R,S,2-[(2-aminoethoxy)methyl]-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-ethoxycarbonyl- 5- methoxycarbonyl-6-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine has been studied in two human volunteers using single oral and intravenous doses of 14C-amlodipine. The drug was well absorbed by the oral route while the mean oral bioavailability for unchanged drug was 62.5%. 2. Renal elimination was the major route of excretion with about 60% of the dosed radioactivity recovered in urine. Mean total recovered radioactivity in urine and faeces amounted to 84% for both the oral and intravenous routes. 3. Apart from a small amount of unchanged amlodipine (10% of urine 14C), only pyridine metabolites of amlodipine were excreted in urine. The majority (greater than 95%) of the metabolites excreted in the 0-72 h post-dose period were identified; the major metabolite was 2-([4-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-ethoxycarbonyl-5-methoxycarbonyl-6-methyl- 2-pyridyl]methoxy) acetic acid and this represented 33% of urinary radioactivity. The data indicate that oxidation of amlodipine to its pyridine analogue is the principal route of metabolism with subsequent metabolism by oxidative deamination, de-esterification and aliphatic hydroxylation. 4. For the two volunteers, amlodipine concentrations in plasma declined with a mean half-life of 33 h, while slower elimination of total drug-related material from plasma was observed, consistent with prolonged excretion (up to 12 days) of metabolites in urine and faeces. Only amlodipine and pyridine metabolites were found in the circulation. As these pyridine derivatives have minimal calcium antagonist activity the efficacy of amlodipine in man can most probably be attributed to the parent drug.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Adult
  • Amlodipine
  • Biological Availability
  • Chromatography
  • Feces / analysis
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Male
  • Metabolic Clearance Rate
  • Nifedipine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Nifedipine / pharmacokinetics


  • Amlodipine
  • Nifedipine