The challenge of developing scaffolds to reconstruct critical-sized calvarial defects without the addition of high levels of exogenous growth factor remains relevant. Both osteogenic regenerative efficacy and suitable mechanical properties for the temporary scaffold system are of importance. In this study, a Mg alloy mesh reinforced polymer/demineralized bone matrix (DBM) hybrid scaffold was designed where the hybrid scaffold was fabricated by a concurrent electrospinning/electrospraying of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymer and DBM suspended in hyaluronic acid (HA). The Mg alloy mesh significantly increased the flexural strength and modulus of PLGA/DBM hybrid scaffold. In vitro results demonstrated that the Mg alloy mesh reinforced PLGA/DBM hybrid scaffold (Mg-PLGA@HA&DBM) exhibited a stronger ability to promote the proliferation of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) and induce BMSC osteogenic differentiation compared with control scaffolding materials lacking critical components. In vivo osteogenesis studies were performed in a rat critical-sized calvarial defect model and incorporated a variety of histological stains and immunohistochemical staining of osteocalcin. At 12 weeks, the rat model data showed that the degree of bone repair for the Mg-PLGA@HA&DBM scaffold was significantly greater than for those scaffolds lacking one or more of the principal components. Although complete defect filling was not achieved, the improved mechanical properties, promotion of BMSC proliferation and induction of BMSC osteogenic differentiation, and improved promotion of bone repair in the rat critical-sized calvarial defect model make Mg alloy mesh reinforced PLGA/DBM hybrid scaffold an attractive option for the repair of critical-sized bone defects where the addition of exogenous isolated growth factors is not employed.
Keywords: biodegradable Mg alloy; bone regeneration; critical-sized bone defect; electrospinning/electrospraying; mechanical property; osteogenic differentiation.
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