Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex chronic condition of unknown etiology, characterized by deep and widespread pain, sleep problems, cognitive impairment, fatigue, and other well-known functional symptoms. Recently, it has been proposed that an imbalance of nutritive components, including essential metal ions and vitamins, might play a critical role in the development of FM. Muscle pain has been associated with deficiencies in amino acids, magnesium, selenium, vitamins B and D, as well as with the harmful effects of heavy metals, such as mercury, cadmium, and lead. Research indicates that patients deficient in certain essential nutrients may develop dysfunction of pain inhibitory mechanisms together with fatigue and other FM symptoms. Additionally, mercury and other toxic elements may interfere with the bioavailability of essential nutrients. This review examines the many effects of metals and vitamins in pain evaluation of FM patients. Dietary guidance is therefore critical for FM patients to help them in correcting a suboptimal or deficient intake of essential nutrients. When optimal levels of nutrition are achieved, pain levels are usually lowered. Additional research is recommended in the field of FM and nutrition to disclose further possible relationships.
Keywords: Fibromyalgia; Magnesium; Mercury; Muscle pain; Selenium; Vitamins.
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