Molecular alterations reflecting pathophysiologic changes thought to occur many years before the clinical onset of Machado-Joseph disease (MJD)/spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), a late-onset polyglutamine disorder, remain unidentified. The absence of molecular biomarkers hampers clinical trials, which lack sensitive measures of disease progression, preventing the identification of events occurring prior to clinical onset. Our aim was to analyse the mtDNA content and the amount of the common deletion (m.8482_13460del4977) in a cohort of 16 preataxic MJD mutation carriers, 85 MJD patients and 101 apparently healthy age-matched controls. Relative expression levels of RPPH1, MT-ND1 and MT-ND4 genes were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. The mtDNA content was calculated as the difference between the expression levels of a mitochondrial gene (MT-ND1) and a nuclear gene (RPPH1); the amount of mtDNA common deletion was calculated as the difference between expression levels of a deleted (MT-ND4) and an undeleted (MT-ND1) mitochondrial genes. mtDNA content in MJD carriers was similar to that of healthy age-matched controls, whereas the percentage of the common deletion was significantly increased in MJD subjects, and more pronounced in the preclinical stage (p < 0.05). The BCL2/BAX ratio was decreased in preataxic carriers compared to controls, suggesting that the mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway is altered in MJD. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that accumulation of common deletion starts in the preclinical stage. Such early alterations provide support to the current understanding that any therapeutic intervention in MJD should start before the overt clinical phenotype.
Keywords: BIOMARKERS; MJD; SCA3; mtDNA.