Introduction: Brain tissue hypoxia may contribute to preventable secondary brain injury after cardiac arrest. We developed a porcine model of opioid overdose cardiac arrest and post-arrest care including invasive, multimodal neurological monitoring of regional brain physiology. We hypothesized brain tissue hypoxia is common with usual post-arrest care and can be prevented by modifying mean arterial pressure (MAP) and arterial oxygen concentration (PaO2).
Methods: We induced opioid overdose and cardiac arrest in sixteen swine, attempted resuscitation after 9 min of apnea, and randomized resuscitated animals to three alternating 6-h blocks of standard or titrated care. We invasively monitored physiological parameters including brain tissue oxygen (PbtO2). During standard care blocks, we maintained MAP > 65 mmHg and oxygen saturation 94-98%. During titrated care, we targeted PbtO2 > 20 mmHg.
Results: Overall, 10 animals (63%) achieved ROSC after a median of 12.4 min (range 10.8-21.5 min). PbtO2 was higher during titrated care than standard care blocks (unadjusted β = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42-0.78, P < 0.001). In an adjusted model controlling for MAP, vasopressors, sedation, and block sequence, PbtO2 remained higher during titrated care (adjusted β = 0.75, 95%CI 0.43-1.06, P < 0.001). At three predetermined thresholds, brain tissue hypoxia was significantly less common during titrated care blocks (44 vs 2% of the block duration spent below 20 mmHg, P < 0.001; 21 vs 0% below 15 mmHg, P < 0.001; and, 7 vs 0% below 10 mmHg, P = .01).
Conclusions: In this model of opioid overdose cardiac arrest, brain tissue hypoxia is common and treatable. Further work will elucidate best strategies and impact of titrated care on functional outcomes.
Keywords: Cardiac arrest; Critical care; Neuromonitoring; Precision medicine; Resuscitation.
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