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Review
. 2018 Jul;265:25-38.
doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.04.036. Epub 2018 Apr 13.

Brain, Blood, Cerebrospinal Fluid, and Serum Biomarkers in Schizophrenia

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Review

Brain, Blood, Cerebrospinal Fluid, and Serum Biomarkers in Schizophrenia

Alireza Mohammadi et al. Psychiatry Res. .

Abstract

Over the last decade, finding a reliable biomarker for the early detection of schizophrenia (Scz) has been a topic of interest. The main goal of the current review is to provide a comprehensive view of the brain, blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and serum biomarkers of Scz disease. Imaging studies have demonstrated that the volumes of the corpus callosum, thalamus, hippocampal formation, subiculum, parahippocampal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, and amygdala-hippocampal complex were reduced in patients diagnosed with Scz. It has been revealed that the levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α were increased in patients with Scz. Decreased mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), nerve growth factor (NGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) genes have also been reported in Scz patients. Genes with known strong relationships with this disease include BDNF, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4), dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1), neuregulin 1 (NRG1), Reelin (RELN), Selenium-binding protein 1 (SELENBP1), glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD 67), and disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1). The levels of dopamine, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor 1A and B (5-HTR1A and 5-HTR1B), and 5-HT1B were significantly increased in Scz patients, while the levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), and 5-HT receptor 2A (5-HTR2A) were decreased. The increased levels of SELENBP1 and Glycogen synthase kinase 3 subunit α (GSK3α) genes in contrast with reduced levels of B-cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1), human leukocyte antigen DRB1 (HLA-DRB1), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3 (HNRPA3), and serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SFRS1) genes have also been reported. This review covers various dysregulation of neurotransmitters and also highlights the strengths and weaknesses of studies attempting to identify candidate biomarkers.

Keywords: Biomarker; DISC1; GABA; Reelin; SELENBP1.

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