Expanding the molecular basis and phenotypic spectrum of ZDHHC9-associated X-linked intellectual disability

Am J Med Genet A. 2018 May;176(5):1238-1244. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38683.


Pathogenic variants in Zinc Finger DHHC-Type Containing 9 (ZDHHC9) gene have been identified as the cause of X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) in a small number of families. There are a total of 11 reported pathogenic variants in ZDHHC9 in the literature. The majority of reported variants are familial point mutations. There is one report of XLID associated with a de novo mutation in ZDHHC9, and one family with intragenic deletion within ZDHHC9 detected by array CGH. Although initial reports of families with ZDHHC9 pathogenic variants suggested a nonsyndromic XLID, more recent reports suggest a syndromic phenotype with facial dysmorphism. Here we report four patients with pathogenic variants in ZDHHC9, a family with two siblings and their maternal uncle who presented with XLID due to intragenic deletion of ZDHHC9 detected by array CGH and an 11-year-old boy with a de novo pathogenic missense variant in ZDHHC9, which is the first recurrent ZDHHC9 mutation. Our patients had some distinctive facial features in common, including elongated and down-slanting palpebral fissures and high hairline. Marfanoid habitus and seizures that have been previously reported in association with pathogenic variants in ZDHHC9 were absent in our cohort. Clinical information on patients with ZDHHC9-associated XLID is very scarce. New reports of families with detailed clinical description will add to the existing knowledge and help understand the condition better.

Keywords: X-linked intellectual disability; ZDHHC9; array CGH; developmental delay; macrocephaly; seizure.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acyltransferases / genetics*
  • Adolescent
  • Alleles
  • Child
  • Comparative Genomic Hybridization
  • Facies
  • Female
  • Genetic Association Studies* / methods
  • Genotype
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Mental Retardation, X-Linked / diagnosis*
  • Mental Retardation, X-Linked / genetics*
  • Mutation*
  • Pedigree
  • Phenotype*


  • Acyltransferases
  • ZDHHC9 protein, human