Patients with heritable cancer syndromes characterized by germline PTEN mutations (termed PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome, PHTS) benefit from PTEN-enabled cancer risk assessment and clinical management. PTEN-wildtype patients (~50%) remain at increased risk of developing certain cancers. Existence of germline mutations in other known cancer susceptibility genes has not been explored in these patients, with implications for different medical management. We conducted a 4-year multicenter prospective study of incident patients with features of Cowden/Cowden-like (CS/CS-like) and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndromes (BRRS) without PTEN mutations. Exome sequencing and targeted analysis were performed including 59 clinically actionable genes from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and 24 additional genes associated with inherited cancer syndromes. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic cancer susceptibility gene alterations were found in 7 of the 87 (8%) CS/CS-like and BRRS patients and included MUTYH, RET, TSC2, BRCA1, BRCA2, ERCC2 and HRAS. We found classic phenotypes associated with the identified genes in 5 of the 7 (71.4%) patients. Variant positive patients were enriched for the presence of second malignant neoplasms compared to patients without identified variants (OR = 6.101, 95% CI 1.143-35.98, p = 0.035). Germline variant spectrum and frequencies were compared to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), including 6 apparently sporadic cancers associated with PHTS. With comparable overall prevalence of germline variants, the spectrum of mutated genes was different in our patients compared to TCGA. Intriguingly, we also found notable enrichment of variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in our patients (OR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.5, p = 0.0002). Our data suggest that only a small subset of PTEN-wildtype CS/CS-like and BRRS patients could be accounted for by germline variants in some of the known cancer-related genes. Thus, the existence of alterations in other and more likely non-classic cancer-associated genes is plausible, reflecting the complexity of these heterogeneous hereditary cancer syndromes.