Suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) therapy can lead to insufficient drug exposure leading to viral rebound and increased likelihood of resistance. This has driven the development of long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations which may mitigate some of these problems. Maraviroc (MVC) is an orally dosed CCR5 antagonist approved for use in patients infected with CCR5-trophic HIV-1. MVC prevents viral entry into host cells, is readily distributed to biologically relevant tissues and has an alternative resistance profile compared to more commonly used therapies. This makes a MVC LAI formulation particularly appealing for implementation in Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP). A 70 wt% MVC-loaded nanodispersion stabilised with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexoxy)-1,4-dioxobutane-2-sulfonate (AOT) was prepared using emulsion-templated freeze-drying. In vitro release rate studies revealed over a 22% decrease in MVC release rate constant across a size selective membrane compared with an aqueous solution of MVC (<5% DMSO). Pharmacokinetic studies in rats were subsequently carried out following intramuscular injection of either the nanodispersion or an aqueous MVC preparation (<5% DMSO). Results demonstrated over a 3.4-fold increase in AUC0-∞ (1959.71 vs 567.17 ng.h ml), over a 2.6-fold increase in MVCs terminal half-life (t½) (140.69 vs 53.23 h) and MVC concentrations present up to 10-days. These data support development of a MVC LAI formulation with potential application in HIV therapy or prevention.
Keywords: Intramuscular; Long-Acting Injectable (LAI); Long-Acting Parenteral (LAP); Maraviroc; Nanodispersion; Nanomedicine; Pharmacokinetics; Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP).
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