Background: The teleost fish Monopterus albus is emerging as a new model for biological studies due to its natural sex transition and small genome, in addition to its enormous economic and potential medical value. However, no genomic information for the Monopterus is currently available.
Findings: Here, we sequenced and de novo assembled the genome of M. albus and report the de novochromosome assembly by FISH walking assisted by conserved synteny (Cafs). Using Cafs, 328 scaffolds were assembled into 12 chromosomes, which covered genomic sequences of 555 Mb, accounting for 81.3% of the sequences assembled in scaffolds (∼689 Mb). A total of 18 ,660 genes were mapped on the chromosomes and showed a nonrandom distribution along chromosomes.
Conclusions: We report the first reference genome of the Monopterus and provide an efficient Cafs strategy for a de novo chromosome-level assembly of the Monopterus genome, which provides a valuable resource, not only for further studies in genetics, evolution, and development, particularly sex determination, but also for breed improvement of the species.