Robotic Beating Heart Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass in Higher-Risk Patients: Can It be Done Safely?

Innovations (Phila). 2018 Mar/Apr;13(2):108-113. doi: 10.1097/IMI.0000000000000481.


Objective: Patients with a high Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) predicted risk of mortality undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery are known to have worse outcomes. Less invasive approaches have been shown to improve morbidity and mortality for these patients. In this study, we examined perioperative outcomes in higher-risk patients undergoing robotic totally endoscopic beating heart coronary artery bypass surgery.

Methods: The STS predicted risk of mortality was reviewed for patients undergoing robotic totally endoscopic beating heart coronary artery bypass surgery at our institution between January 2013 and May 2017. We identified a higher-risk cohort (n = 50) and compared them to a lower-risk cohort (n = 220) during the same period. The higher-risk group was formed from patients with the 50 highest STS scores. Perioperative data were collected retrospectively.

Results: There were 50 patients in the higher-risk group (mean STS score = 7.05 ± 4.9, mean age = 73 years) and 220 patients in the lower-risk group (mean STS score = 0.89 ± 0.6, mean age = 64 years). The higher-risk group had significantly greater rates of renal insufficiency, peripheral vascular disease, and lower ejection fraction. The incidence of postoperative re-exploration for bleeding, stroke, myocardial infarction, and prolonged ventilation was similar. Perioperative blood transfusion and hospital length of stay were greater in the higher-risk group. Mortality was lower in the higher-risk group (0% vs 1.8% P = 0.045). Cardiac-related mortality was similar at midterm follow-up.

Conclusions: We conclude that beating heart totally endoscopic beating heart coronary artery bypass surgery can be performed in patients with a higher STS predicted risk of mortality with excellent outcomes. Further studies are warranted to evaluate long-term results of totally endoscopic beating heart coronary artery bypass surgery in this challenging group of patients.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cardiopulmonary Bypass / statistics & numerical data
  • Coronary Artery Bypass / methods*
  • Coronary Artery Bypass / mortality
  • Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump / methods*
  • Endoscopy / instrumentation*
  • Endoscopy / methods
  • Female
  • Hemorrhage / complications*
  • Hemorrhage / epidemiology
  • Hemorrhage / mortality
  • Hemorrhage / surgery
  • Humans
  • Interactive Ventilatory Support / statistics & numerical data
  • Interactive Ventilatory Support / trends
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / complications
  • Myocardial Infarction / epidemiology
  • Perioperative Period / statistics & numerical data
  • Peripheral Vascular Diseases / complications
  • Peripheral Vascular Diseases / mortality
  • Postoperative Period
  • Renal Insufficiency / complications
  • Renal Insufficiency / mortality
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Robotic Surgical Procedures / methods*
  • Stroke / complications
  • Stroke / epidemiology
  • Stroke / mortality
  • Stroke Volume / physiology