Radiolabeled nanoprobes for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has received special attention over the past decade, allowing for sensitive, non-invasive, and quantitative detection of different diseases. The rapidly renal clearable nanomaterials normally suffer from a low accumulation in the tumor through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect due to the rapidly reduced concentration in the blood circulation after renal clearance. It is highly important to design radiolabeled nanomaterials which can meet the balance between the rapid renal clearance and strong EPR effect within a suitable timescale. Herein, renal clearable polyoxometalate (POM) clusters of ultra-small size (∼1 nm in diameter) were readily radiolabeled with the oxophilic 89Zr to obtain 89Zr-POM clusters, which may allow for efficient staging of kidney dysfunction in a murine model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Furthermore, the as-synthesized clusters can accumulate in the tumor through EPR effect and self-assemble into larger nanostructures in the acidic tumor microenvironment for enhanced tumor accumulation, offering an excellent balance between renal clearance and EPR effect.
Keywords: EPR effect; Kidney dysfunction; Nanomedicine; Positron emission tomography; Tumor diagnosis.
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