Left ventricular function during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty was studied in 16 patients undergoing the procedure. All measurements were performed before and during the first episode of balloon coronary occlusion. In 16 patients (Group A), data were recorded before and 30 or 50 s after balloon inflation, and in 8 of these patients (Group B) data were also recorded 15 min after the complete procedure. Left ventriculograms indicated a marked dyskinesia of the anterior and apical wall in all patients. After balloon inflation, there was a marked depression in stroke index and ejection fraction and an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and the time constants of relaxation in all patients. Simultaneous recording of left ventricular pressure (Millar micromanometer) during cineangiography permitted the assessment of myocardial and chamber stiffness. Although there was a strong tendency for both myocardial and chamber stiffness to increase after 30 to 50 s of occlusion, these increases were statistically insignificant. In Group B, a third set of angiographic and pressure measurements obtained 15 min after completion of the coronary angioplasty procedure indicated no residual left ventricular dysfunction, and in this respect, the results are of added clinical importance.