Accuracy of Automatic Carbohydrate, Protein, Fat and Calorie Counting Based on Voice Descriptions of Meals in People with Type 1 Diabetes

Nutrients. 2018 Apr 21;10(4):518. doi: 10.3390/nu10040518.


The aim of this work was to assess the accuracy of automatic macronutrient and calorie counting based on voice descriptions of meals provided by people with unstable type 1 diabetes using the developed expert system (VoiceDiab) in comparison with reference counting made by a dietitian, and to evaluate the impact of insulin doses recommended by a physician on glycemic control in the study’s participants. We also compared insulin doses calculated using the algorithm implemented in the VoiceDiab system. Meal descriptions were provided by 30 hospitalized patients (mean hemoglobin A1c of 8.4%, i.e., 68 mmol/mol). In 16 subjects, the physician determined insulin boluses based on the data provided by the system, and in 14 subjects, by data provided by the dietitian. On one hand, differences introduced by patients who subjectively described their meals compared to those introduced by the system that used the average characteristics of food products, although statistically significant, were low enough not to have a significant impact on insulin doses automatically calculated by the system. On the other hand, the glycemic control of patients was comparable regardless of whether the physician was using the system-estimated or the reference content of meals to determine insulin doses.

Keywords: automatic bolus calculator; calorie counting; carbohydrate counting; diabetes mellitus; glycemic control; insulin dosage; protein and fat counting; voice description of meals.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Algorithms
  • Automation
  • Blood Glucose / drug effects
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / physiopathology
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / metabolism
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Fats / metabolism
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Proteins / metabolism
  • Drug Dosage Calculations*
  • Energy Intake*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / metabolism
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Infusions, Subcutaneous
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Male
  • Meals
  • Mobile Applications
  • Nutritional Status
  • Nutritive Value
  • Smartphone
  • Speech Recognition Software*
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fats
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human