In search of a simpler and less traumatic method of oocyte retrieval for in vitro fertilization (IVF), 37 infertile patients underwent ultrasound-guided transvaginal needle aspiration of the follicles instead of the conventional laparoscopic aspiration. Although only intravenous analgesics and sedatives were used, patients experienced little discomfort. There were no infections or bleeding complications after the procedure. Eleven patients (30%) achieved ongoing pregnancies; this rate of success is comparable to that with our laparoscopic method. Considering this reasonable pregnancy rate, lack of substantial morbidity, and good patient acceptance, laparoscopic oocyte retrieval for IVF can be largely replaced by the ultrasound-guided transvaginal needle aspiration technique.