Clostridium novyi-NT (CVN-NT) spores germinate in hypoxic regions of tumors and have successfully cured induced neoplasia in mouse models and resulted in objective tumor responses in naturally developing neoplasia in the dog. The objective of this pilot, descriptive, prospective, clinical investigation, was to evaluate and describe the immune response to CNV-NT spores to better understand which immune pathways might play a role in the response to this bacteriolytic immunotherapy. Intratumoral injection of CNV-NT spores result in increased phagocytosis and NK cell-like function after treatment. Intravenous injection of CNV-NT spores resulted in increased LPS-induced TNF-α production, LTA-induced IL-10 production and NK cell-like function post-treatment. Increased NK cell-like function was sustained to 28 (intratumoral) or 56 (intravenous) days post-treatment, and increased phagocytic function was sustained to 28 days post-treatment suggesting that CNV-NT spores induce longer-term immune cell function changes. Future investigations evaluating long-term immune system changes and associations between immune function and tumor remission rates should include evaluation of these pathways.