Twenty-nine percutaneous balloon dilations of the axillary and subclavian veins were performed in 19 patients. Stenoses occurred in typical locations of anatomic narrowing or at sites of previous trauma. The initial success rate was 76%, with a 1-year patency rate of 35% and a 2-year patency rate of 6%. Angioplasty can be performed on an outpatient basis with a very low rate of significant complications and can be repeated numerous times to keep a vein patent for many years. This procedure is especially valuable in dialysis patients who have limited access sites.