Stem Cells in Osteochondral Tissue Engineering

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018;1058:359-372. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-76711-6_16.


Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are pluripotent stem cells with the ability to differentiate into a variety of other connective tissue cells, such as chondral, bony, muscular, and tendon tissue. Bone marrow-derived MSCs are pluripotent cells that can differentiate among others into osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes.Bone marrow-derived cells may represent the future in osteochondral repair. A one-step arthroscopic technique is developed for cartilage repair, using a device to concentrate bone marrow-derived cells and collagen powder or hyaluronic acid membrane as scaffolds for cell support and platelet gel.The rationale of the "one-step technique" is to transplant the entire bone-marrow cellular pool instead of isolated and expanded mesenchymal stem cells allowing cells to be processed directly in the operating room, without the need for a laboratory phase. For an entirely arthroscopic implantation are employed a scaffold and the instrumentation previously applied for ACI; in addition to these devices, autologous platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is added in order to provide a supplement of growth factors. Results of this technique are encouraging at mid-term although long-term follow-up is still needed.

Keywords: Ankle; Arthroscopy; Bone marrow; Cartilage repair; Stem cells.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adipocytes / metabolism
  • Adipocytes / pathology
  • Animals
  • Bone Marrow Cells* / metabolism
  • Bone Marrow Cells* / pathology
  • Bone and Bones* / injuries
  • Bone and Bones* / metabolism
  • Bone and Bones* / pathology
  • Cartilage* / injuries
  • Cartilage* / metabolism
  • Cartilage* / pathology
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cells, Immobilized* / metabolism
  • Cells, Immobilized* / pathology
  • Cells, Immobilized* / transplantation
  • Chondrocytes / metabolism
  • Chondrocytes / pathology
  • Humans
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation / methods*
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells* / metabolism
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells* / pathology
  • Osteoblasts / metabolism
  • Osteoblasts / pathology
  • Tissue Engineering / methods*