Preliminary experience with SpineEOS, a new software for 3D planning in AIS surgery

Eur Spine J. 2018 Sep;27(9):2165-2174. doi: 10.1007/s00586-018-5591-3. Epub 2018 Apr 24.


Purpose: Preoperative planning of scoliosis surgery is essential in the effective treatment of spine pathology. Thus, precontoured rods have been recently developed to avoid iatrogenic sagittal misalignment and rod breakage. Some specific issues exist in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), such as a less distal lower instrumented level, a great variability in the location of inflection point (transition from lumbar lordosis to thoracic kyphosis), and sagittal correction is limited by both bone-implant interface. Since 2007, stereoradiographic imaging system is used and allows for 3D reconstructions. Therefore, a software was developed to perform preoperative 3D surgical planning and to provide rod's shape and length. The goal of this preliminary study was to assess the feasibility, reliability, and the clinical relevance of this new software.

Methods: Retrospective study on 47 AIS patients operated with the same surgical technique: posteromedial translation through posterior approach with lumbar screws and thoracic sublaminar bands. Pre- and postoperatively, 3D reconstructions were performed on stereoradiographic images (EOS system, Paris, France) and compared. Then, the software was used to plan the surgical correction and determine rod's shape and length. Simulated spine and rods were compared to postoperative real 3D reconstructions. 3D reconstructions and planning were performed by an independent observer.

Results: 3D simulations were performed on the 47 patients. No difference was found between the simulated model and the postoperative 3D reconstructions in terms of sagittal parameters. Postoperatively, 21% of LL were not within reference values. Postoperative SVA was 20 mm anterior in 2/3 of the cases. Postoperative rods were significantly longer than precontoured rods planned with the software (mean 10 mm). Inflection points were different on the rods used and the planned rods (2.3 levels on average).

Conclusion: In this preliminary study, the software based on 3D stereoradiography low-dose system used to plan AIS surgery seems reliable for preoperative planning and precontoured rods. It is an interesting tool to improve surgeons' practice, since 3D planning is expected to reduce complications such as iatrogenic malalignment and to help for a better understanding of the complications, choosing the location of the transitional vertebra. However, further work is needed to improve thoracic kyphosis planning. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

Keywords: 3D; Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; Preoperative planning; Sagittal alignment; Stereoradiography.

Publication types

  • Video-Audio Media

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods
  • Kyphosis / diagnostic imaging
  • Kyphosis / surgery
  • Lordosis / diagnostic imaging
  • Lordosis / surgery
  • Male
  • Postoperative Period
  • Preoperative Care / methods
  • Prosthesis Design
  • Radiography / methods
  • Reference Values
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Scoliosis / diagnostic imaging*
  • Scoliosis / surgery*
  • Software*
  • Spinal Fusion / methods
  • Thoracic Vertebrae / diagnostic imaging
  • Thoracic Vertebrae / surgery
  • Treatment Outcome