Purpose: This study was performed to assess the effectiveness of the combined intravenous and intra-articular tranexamic acid (TXA) regimen in total knee arthroplasty (TKA).
Methods: The perioperative blood loss in 75 consecutive patients undergoing unilateral TKA that received both 1000 mg of TXA intravenously and 1000 mg of intra-articular TXA (combined TXA group) was compared with a consecutive series of 77 patients that received 1000 mg of TXA intravenously (intravenous TXA group). An additional 1000 mg of intravenous TXA was administered 6 h after the initial administration in both groups. Neither a pneumatic tourniquet nor drain was used. The primary outcome was the perioperative blood loss at 3 days after TKA calculated using the blood volume and change in haemoglobin from the preoperative value.
Results: The perioperative blood loss was significantly lower in the combined TXA group at 3 days after TKA than the intravenous TXA group (686 ± 303 vs. 830 ± 317 mL; 95% CI 44-244 mL; p = 0.0049). The perioperative blood loss was also lower in the combined TXA group at 1 and 7 days after TKA (374 ± 265 vs. 459 ± 226 mL; 95% CI 7-165 mL; p = 0.034 and 751 ± 320 vs. 871 ± 327 mL; 95% CI 16-224 mL; p = 0.024, respectively). No thrombotic events were observed during the study periods.
Conclusions: Combined intra-articular and intravenous TXA regimen significantly reduced perioperative blood loss compared with only intravenous TXA until 7 days after TKA.
Keywords: Blood loss; Knee; Primary arthroplasty; Tranexamic acid; Transfusion.