Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women, primarily due to diagnosis at late stages. Therefore, identification of modifiable risk factors for this disease is warranted. Using the Patient Epidemiology Data System (PEDS), collected from 1981 to 1998 at Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, we conducted a hospital-based, case-control analysis of self-reported cruciferous vegetable intake and ovarian cancer among 675 women with primary, incident ovarian cancer, and 1275 without cancer. Cruciferous vegetable intake was queried using a 44-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated with logistic regression, adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), education, smoking status, parity, family history of ovarian cancer, total fruit consumption, total meat consumption, and total noncruciferous vegetable consumption. We observed a significant inverse association for women with highest vs. lowest intakes of total vegetables (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.46-0.92), cooked cauliflower (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.67-0.99), and cooked greens (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.46-0.86) and an inverse, dose-dependent association between cooked cruciferous vegetables intake and ovarian cancer (for each additional ten servings per month, OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.76-0.96). These findings suggest that a diet that includes cruciferous vegetables could be an important modifiable risk factor for ovarian cancer.