A Pilot Study of the Effect of Green Kiwifruit on Human Intestinal Fermentation Measured by Hydrogen and Methane Breath Testing

J Med Food. 2018 Dec;21(12):1295-1298. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2018.4179. Epub 2018 Apr 25.


We investigated the impact of the ingestion of two green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa var. Hayward) and one Royal Gala apple on breath hydrogen and methane production in humans. Consumption of two green kiwifruit led to no evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption (0/20), whereas consumption of one apple was associated with carbohydrate malabsorption in 6/20 participants (P = .008). There were no significant differences in the area under the curve for hydrogen or methane breath concentrations after consumption of the two fruits. Rates of lactose and fructose breath tests in this cohort were within expected parameters. Green kiwifruit are not associated with clinically significant carbohydrate malabsorption compared with apples in this pilot study.

MeSH terms

  • Actinidia*
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Breath Tests
  • Female
  • Fermentation*
  • Fruit
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen / metabolism
  • Intestinal Absorption*
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome / metabolism*
  • Malus*
  • Methane / metabolism
  • Middle Aged
  • Pilot Projects
  • Young Adult


  • Hydrogen
  • Methane