Gastroprotective and Antioxidant Activity of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata Leaf Juices against Indomethacin and Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats

Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Apr 24;19(5):1265. doi: 10.3390/ijms19051265.


Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata are used interchangeably in traditional medicine for treating peptic ulcers and inflammatory problems. In this context, this study aims to characterize the chemical constituents and evaluate the gastroprotective activity of the leaf juices of the two species in acute gastric lesions models. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometer (UHPLC-MS) were performed for chemical characterization. Wistar rats were pre-treated orally with leaf juices (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) or ranitidine (50 mg/kg). The peaks observed in the chromatogram of K. brasiliensis showed similar mass spectra to flavonoid glycosides derived from patuletin and eupafolin, while K. pinnata showed mass spectra similar to compounds derived from quercetin, patuletin, eupafolin and kaempferol. K. brasiliensis at all doses and K. pinnata at doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the lesions in the ethanol induction model. In the indomethacin induction model, both species showed significant results at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. Also, the pre-treatment with leaf juices increased the antioxidant defense system, glutathione (GSH), whereas malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were significantly decreased. Treatment with leaf juices led to the upregulation of zone occludes-1 (ZO-1) and the downregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and factor nuclear-κβ transcription (NF-κB-p65), while also showing a cytoprotective effect and maintaining mucus production. These findings show that the leaf juices of the two species showed gastroprotective effects on ethanol and gastric indomethacin injury which were a consequence of gastric inflammation suppression, antioxidant activity and the maintenance of cytoprotective defenses and mucosal structure architecture.

Keywords: Crassulaceae; coirama; flavonoids; peptic ulcers.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / chemistry
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Chromatography, Thin Layer
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Ethanol / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Gastric Mucosa / drug effects
  • Gastric Mucosa / pathology
  • Gastritis / drug therapy
  • Gastritis / etiology*
  • Gastritis / metabolism
  • Gastritis / pathology*
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Glycoproteins / metabolism
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Indomethacin / adverse effects*
  • Inflammation Mediators / metabolism
  • Kalanchoe / chemistry*
  • Malondialdehyde / metabolism
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plant Leaves / chemistry*
  • Protective Agents / chemistry
  • Protective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Rats
  • Stomach Ulcer / drug therapy
  • Stomach Ulcer / etiology
  • Stomach Ulcer / pathology


  • Antioxidants
  • Cytokines
  • Glycoproteins
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Plant Extracts
  • Protective Agents
  • Ethanol
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Peroxidase
  • Glutathione
  • Indomethacin