Protection of Spleen Tissue of γ-ray Irradiated Mice Against Immunosuppressive and Oxidative Effects of Radiation by Adenosine 5'-Monophosphate

Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Apr 24;19(5):1273. doi: 10.3390/ijms19051273.

Abstract

The immune system is very sensitive to radiation. This study revealed that adenosine 5′-monophosphate (5′-AMP) increased the DNA contents of the spleen and the spleen index of irradiated mice. Moreover, the exogenous 5′-AMP could significantly repair the ultra-structure of the damaged spleen through transmission electron microscopy. When indicators of the mouse immune system were assessed, the flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that the administration of exogenous 5′-AMP could reduce the apoptosis in the splenic cells. It could also regulate the transition of cells towards S phase, increase the proportion of CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ cellular subsets, and enhance the secretion of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-10, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). These effects were associated with a decrease in oxidative stress, as evidenced by changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of spleen tissues. These results suggested that exogenous 5′-AMP could repair the damaged spleen, increase the spleen index, and regulate the cell cycles and apoptosis. There was an increase in the production of various cytokines and play a protective role on the immune system of irradiated mice by dynamically adjusting the REDOX balance.

Keywords: 5′-AMP; antioxidant activities; immuno-regulation; radioprotection.

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Monophosphate / metabolism*
  • Adenosine Monophosphate / pharmacology
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Apoptosis / drug effects
  • Apoptosis / radiation effects
  • Cell Cycle Checkpoints / drug effects
  • Cell Cycle Checkpoints / radiation effects
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Gamma Rays / adverse effects*
  • Immunomodulation
  • Immunosuppression* / methods
  • Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Oxidative Stress / radiation effects*
  • Radiation-Protective Agents / pharmacology
  • Spleen / pathology
  • Spleen / physiology*
  • Spleen / radiation effects*
  • Spleen / ultrastructure

Substances

  • Antioxidants
  • Cytokines
  • Radiation-Protective Agents
  • Adenosine Monophosphate