Background: Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is suppressed in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), while its' stimulation or overexpression results in reduced disease severity in pre-clinical NAFLD models. Leucine allosterically activates Sirt1 and synergise with other Sirt/AMPK/NO pathway activators. We developed a triple combination of leucine, metformin and sildenafil (NS-0200), which was effective in a mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).
Aim: To report the results from a Phase 2, randomised clinical trial of of NS-0200 in 91 subjects with NAFLD (liver fat ≥15% by magnetic resonance imaging-proton-density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF)).
Methods: Subjects were randomised to placebo, low-dose (1.1 g leucine/0.5 g metformin/0.5 mg sildenafil) or high-dose NS-0200 (1.1 g leucine/0.5 g metformin/1.0 mg sildenafil) b.d. for 16 weeks; change in hepatic fat was assessed via MRI-PDFF, and lipid metabolism was assessed via changes in the lipidomic signature. Seventy subjects completed the trial and met a priori compliance criteria. Analyses were conducted on the full cohort and on those with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values above median (50 U/L; n = 35).
Results: In the full cohort, active treatments did not separate from placebo. High dose NS-0200 reduced hepatic fat by 15.7% (relative change from baseline) in the high ALT group (P < 0.005) while low dose NS-0200 and placebo did not significantly change hepatic fat. Lipidomic analysis showed dose-responsive treatment effects in both overall and high ALT cohorts, with significant decreases in metabolically active lipids and up-regulation of fatty acid oxidation.
Conclusion: These data support further evaluation of high-dose NS-0200 for treating NASH, especially in those with elevated ALT (NCT 02546609).
© 2018 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.